PSLE: Dear students, Do not STRESS; Do your BEST; Forget the REST. "You may never know what results come of your action, but if you do nothing there will be no result.” ~ Mahatma Gandhi.

Important years in Mathematics

3000 B. C.
The Egyptians used a system based on groups of 10. They also developed basic geometry and surveying techniques.

370 B. C.
Eucloxus of Cnidus developed the method of exhaustion, foreshadowing integral calculus.

300 B. C.
Euclid constructed a system of geometry by means of logical deduction.

Adelard of Bath translated euclid’s 15 volumes of the elements from the Arabic, making Euclid’s work known in Europe.

Mid – 1100’s
A translation al-khowarizmi’s book on arithmetic introduced the Hindu – Arabic numerical system to Europe

The Dutch mathematician Vander Hoecke used the sign plus (+) and minus (-) for the first time in algebraic expressions.

German mathematician, Regiomontanus established trigonometry as a separate field from astronomy

Girolama Cardano published Ars Magna, the first book on modern mathematics

Robert Recorde introduced the equal sign (=) into mathematics. He thought tha nothing else an be more equal than a pair of parallel lines

John Napier published his discovery of logarithms, an aid in simplifying calculations

Rene Descartes published his discovery o analytic geometry, proposing mathematics as the perfect model for reasoning

Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibinz published their independent discoveries of calculus.

Abraham sharp calculated π to 72 decimal places.

Cristian Goldbach stated what is now known as Goldbach’s conjecture: every even number is the sum of two prime numbers. This statement has still to be proved or disproved by mathematicians.

Gaspart Monge introduced descriptive geometry, a French military secret until 1795.

Early 1800’s
Karl F. Gauss, Janos Bolyai and Nikolai Lobachevsky worked independently to develop non-euclidean geometrics.

Early 1820’s
Charles Babbage began to develop mechanical computing machines.

Jean – baptiste Fourier introduced Fourier analysis.

Evariste Galois introduced group theory

George Boole published his system of symbolic logic

Josiah Willard Gibbs introduced vector analysis in three dimensions.

Late 1800’s
George cantor developed set theory and a mathematical theory of the infinite.

Ernst Zermelo developed an axiomatic approach to set theory, using two undefined terms and seven axioms.

Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell published Principia mathematica, which argues that all mathematical propositions can be derived from a few axioms.

Emmy Nother published a axiomatic approach to algebra.

Allan turing gave a description of the ‘Turing machine’, a imaginary computer that can solve all problems that are defined as computable.

Late 1950’s & 1960’s
New mathematics was introduced in class rooms in many countries

Roger Penrose developed a tiling made up of two types of rhombuses that has no repeating patterns. These so called Penrose tiling were later found to reflect the structure of a new type of crystalline matter, quasicrystals.

Several mathematicians explored fractal curves, structures that can be used to represent chaotic phenomena.