# Important years in Mathematics

**3000 B. C.**

The Egyptians used a system based on groups of 10. They also developed basic geometry and surveying techniques.

**370 B. C.**

Eucloxus of Cnidus developed the method of exhaustion, foreshadowing integral calculus.

**300 B. C.**

Euclid constructed a system of geometry by means of logical deduction.

**1142’s**

Adelard of Bath translated euclid’s 15 volumes of the elements from the Arabic, making Euclid’s work known in Europe.

**Mid – 1100’s**

A translation al-khowarizmi’s book on arithmetic introduced the Hindu – Arabic numerical system to Europe

**1514’s**

The Dutch mathematician Vander Hoecke used the sign plus (+) and minus (-) for the first time in algebraic expressions.

**1533’s**

German mathematician, Regiomontanus established trigonometry as a separate field from astronomy

**1542’s**

Girolama Cardano published Ars Magna, the first book on modern mathematics

**1557’s**

Robert Recorde introduced the equal sign (=) into mathematics. He thought tha nothing else an be more equal than a pair of parallel lines

**1614’s**

John Napier published his discovery of logarithms, an aid in simplifying calculations

**1637’s**

Rene Descartes published his discovery o analytic geometry, proposing mathematics as the perfect model for reasoning

**Mid-1680’s**

Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibinz published their independent discoveries of calculus.

**1717’s**

Abraham sharp calculated π to 72 decimal places.

**1742’s**

Cristian Goldbach stated what is now known as Goldbach’s conjecture: every even number is the sum of two prime numbers. This statement has still to be proved or disproved by mathematicians.

**1763’s**

Gaspart Monge introduced descriptive geometry, a French military secret until 1795.

**Early 1800’s**

Karl F. Gauss, Janos Bolyai and Nikolai Lobachevsky worked independently to develop non-euclidean geometrics.

**Early 1820’s**

Charles Babbage began to develop mechanical computing machines.

**1822’s**

Jean – baptiste Fourier introduced Fourier analysis.

**1829’s**

Evariste Galois introduced group theory

**1854’s**

George Boole published his system of symbolic logic

**1881’s**

Josiah Willard Gibbs introduced vector analysis in three dimensions.

**Late 1800’s**

George cantor developed set theory and a mathematical theory of the infinite.

**1908’s**

Ernst Zermelo developed an axiomatic approach to set theory, using two undefined terms and seven axioms.

**1910-1913**

Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell published Principia mathematica, which argues that all mathematical propositions can be derived from a few axioms.

**1921’s**

Emmy Nother published a axiomatic approach to algebra.

**1937’s**

Allan turing gave a description of the ‘Turing machine’, a imaginary computer that can solve all problems that are defined as computable.

**Late 1950’s & 1960’s**

New mathematics was introduced in class rooms in many countries

**1974’s**

Roger Penrose developed a tiling made up of two types of rhombuses that has no repeating patterns. These so called Penrose tiling were later found to reflect the structure of a new type of crystalline matter, quasicrystals.

**1980’s**

Several mathematicians explored fractal curves, structures that can be used to represent chaotic phenomena.

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